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Detection of Incipient Thermal Damage in Carbon Fiber-Bismaleimide

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Detection of Incipient Thermal Damage in Carbon Fiber-Bismaleimide Composites Using Hand-Held Ftir


Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are gaining popularity as matrix materials in carbon fiber composites, especially in high temperature applications, due to their very high glass transition temperatures.  Extended elevated temperature exposure can cause a decrease in the matrix dominated properties of BMI-matrix composites due to thermal damage mechanisms that can be chemical (crosslinking, oxidation) or physical (microcracking, delamination) in nature.  The chemical damage begins at lower thermal exposures than the physical damage; however standard ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques detect only the physical damage, which is not apparent until a significant loss in matrix dominated properties, such as shear strength has already occurred.  In this study, a thermal damage detection method based on the chemical changes caused by thermal exposure of Solvay 5250-4/IM7l BMI composite laminates was investigated.  Infrared spectra were collected using a handheld Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope from samples with varying levels of thermal exposure.  The spectra were analyzed using chemometric multivariate analysis techniques. The FTIR measurements were combined with shear properties measured using short beam strength testing (ASTM D2344-16) to develop a model which identified the onset and extent of damage by predicting the change in short beam strength associated with IR spectral changes.  We compare our model’s performance to ultrasonic inspection as a method for identifying the onset of thermal damage.  The FTIR based method detected statistically significant decreases in short beam strength at thermal exposures well below those causing UT-detectable damage.


Author: Ryan Toivola


Conference: SAMPE Seattle 2017


SKU/Code: SE17--0869

Pages: 17

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